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 This manual is for GNU Texinfo (version 4.8, 29 December 2004), a
 documentation system that can produce both online information and a
 printed manual from a single source.
   Copyright (C) 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998,
 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
      Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
      document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
      Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software
      Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts
      being "A GNU Manual," and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a)
      below.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
      "GNU Free Documentation License."
      (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have freedom to copy and
      modify this GNU Manual, like GNU software.  Copies published by
      the Free Software Foundation raise funds for GNU development."
   The first part of this master menu lists the major nodes in this Info
 document, including the @-command and concept indices.  The rest of the
 menu lists all the lower level nodes in the document.


* Copying Conditions            Your rights.
* Overview                      Texinfo in brief.
* Texinfo Mode                  Using the GNU Emacs Texinfo mode.
* Beginning a File              What is at the beginning of a Texinfo file?
* Ending a File                 What is at the end of a Texinfo file?
* Structuring                   Creating chapters, sections, appendices, etc.
* Nodes                         Writing nodes, the basic unit of Texinfo.
* Menus                         Writing menus.
* Cross References              Writing cross references.
* Marking Text                  Marking words and phrases as code,
                                     keyboard input, meta-syntactic
                                     variables, and the like.
* Quotations and Examples       Block quotations, examples, etc.
* Lists and Tables              Itemized or numbered lists, and tables.
* Special Displays              Floating figures and footnotes.
* Indices                       Creating indices.
* Insertions                    Inserting @-signs, braces, etc.
* Breaks                        Forcing or preventing line and page breaks.
* Definition Commands           Describing functions and the like uniformly.
* Conditionals                  Specifying text for only some output cases.
* Internationalization          Supporting languages other than English.
* Defining New Texinfo Commands User-defined macros and aliases.
* Hardcopy                            Output for paper, with TeX.
* Creating and Installing Info Files  Details on Info output.
* Generating HTML               Details on HTML output.
* Command List                  All the Texinfo @-commands.
* Tips                          Hints on how to write a Texinfo document.
* Sample Texinfo Files          Complete examples, including full texts.
* Include Files                 How to incorporate other Texinfo files.
* Headings                      How to write page headings and footings.
* Catching Mistakes             How to find formatting mistakes.
* Copying This Manual           The GNU Free Documentation License.
* Command and Variable Index    A menu containing commands and variables.
* Concept Index                 A menu covering many topics.
  --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
 Overview of Texinfo
* Reporting Bugs              Submitting effective bug reports.
* Using Texinfo               Create printed or online output.
* Output Formats              Overview of the supported output formats.
* Info Files                  What is an Info file?
* Printed Books               Characteristics of a printed book or manual.
* Formatting Commands         @-commands are used for formatting.
* Conventions                 General rules for writing a Texinfo file.
* Comments                    Writing comments and ignored text in general.
* Minimum                     What a Texinfo file must have.
* Six Parts                   Usually, a Texinfo file has six parts.
* Short Sample                A short sample Texinfo file.
* History                     Acknowledgements, contributors and genesis.
 Using Texinfo Mode
* Texinfo Mode Overview       How Texinfo mode can help you.
* Emacs Editing               Texinfo mode adds to GNU Emacs' general
                                   purpose editing features.
* Inserting                   How to insert frequently used @-commands.
* Showing the Structure       How to show the structure of a file.
* Updating Nodes and Menus    How to update or create new nodes and menus.
* Info Formatting             How to format for Info.
* Printing                    How to format and print part or all of a file.
* Texinfo Mode Summary        Summary of all the Texinfo mode commands.
 Updating Nodes and Menus
* Updating Commands           Five major updating commands.
* Updating Requirements       How to structure a Texinfo file for
                                   using the updating command.
* Other Updating Commands     How to indent descriptions, insert
                                   missing nodes lines, and update
                                   nodes in sequence.
 Beginning a Texinfo File
* Sample Beginning            A sample beginning for a Texinfo file.
* Texinfo File Header         The first lines.
* Document Permissions        Ensuring your manual is free.
* Titlepage & Copyright Page  Creating the title and copyright pages.
* Contents                    How to create a table of contents.
* The Top Node                Creating the `Top' node and master menu.
* Global Document Commands    Affecting formatting throughout.
* Software Copying Permissions  Ensure that you and others continue to
                                    have the right to use and share software.
 Texinfo File Header
* First Line                  The first line of a Texinfo file.
* Start of Header             Formatting a region requires this.
* setfilename                 Tell Info the name of the Info file.
* settitle                    Create a title for the printed work.
* End of Header               Formatting a region requires this.
 Document Permissions
* copying                     Declare the document's copying permissions.
* insertcopying               Where to insert the permissions.
 Title and Copyright Pages
* titlepage                   Create a title for the printed document.
* titlefont center sp         The `@titlefont', `@center',
                                  and `@sp' commands.
* title subtitle author       The `@title', `@subtitle',
                                  and `@author' commands.
* Copyright                   How to write the copyright notice and
                                  include copying permissions.
* end titlepage               Turn on page headings after the title and
                                  copyright pages.
* headings on off             An option for turning headings on and off
                                  and double or single sided printing.
 The `Top' Node and Master Menu
* Top Node Example
* Master Menu Parts
 Global Document Commands
* documentdescription         Document summary for the HTML output.
* setchapternewpage           Start chapters on right-hand pages.
* paragraphindent             Specify paragraph indentation.
* firstparagraphindent        Suppress indentation of the first paragraph.
* exampleindent               Specify environment indentation.
 Ending a Texinfo File
* Printing Indices & Menus    How to print an index in hardcopy and
                                  generate index menus in Info.
* File End                    How to mark the end of a file.
 Chapter Structuring
* Tree Structuring            A manual is like an upside down tree ...
* Structuring Command Types   How to divide a manual into parts.
* makeinfo top                The `@top' command, part of the `Top' node.
* chapter
* unnumbered & appendix
* majorheading & chapheading
* section
* unnumberedsec appendixsec heading
* subsection
* unnumberedsubsec appendixsubsec subheading
* subsubsection               Commands for the lowest level sections.
* Raise/lower sections        How to change commands' hierarchical level.
* Two Paths                   Different commands to structure
                                  Info output and printed output.
* Node Menu Illustration      A diagram, and sample nodes and menus.
* node                        Creating nodes, in detail.
* makeinfo Pointer Creation   Letting makeinfo determine node pointers.
* anchor                      Defining arbitrary cross-reference targets.
 The `@node' Command
* Node Names                  How to choose node and pointer names.
* Writing a Node              How to write an `@node' line.
* Node Line Tips              Keep names short.
* Node Line Requirements      Keep names unique, without @-commands.
* First Node                  How to write a `Top' node.
* makeinfo top command        How to use the `@top' command.
* Menu Location               Menus go at the ends of short nodes.
* Writing a Menu              What is a menu?
* Menu Parts                  A menu entry has three parts.
* Less Cluttered Menu Entry   Two part menu entry.
* Menu Example                Two and three part menu entries.
* Other Info Files            How to refer to a different Info file.
 Cross References
* References                  What cross references are for.
* Cross Reference Commands    A summary of the different commands.
* Cross Reference Parts       A cross reference has several parts.
* xref                        Begin a reference with `See' ...
* Top Node Naming             How to refer to the beginning of another file.
* ref                         A reference for the last part of a sentence.
* pxref                       How to write a parenthetical cross reference.
* inforef                     How to refer to an Info-only file.
* uref                        How to refer to a uniform resource locator.
* Reference Syntax            What a reference looks like and requires.
* One Argument                `@xref' with one argument.
* Two Arguments               `@xref' with two arguments.
* Three Arguments             `@xref' with three arguments.
* Four and Five Arguments     `@xref' with four and five arguments.
 Marking Words and Phrases
* Indicating                  How to indicate definitions, files, etc.
* Emphasis                    How to emphasize text.
 Indicating Definitions, Commands, etc.
* Useful Highlighting         Highlighting provides useful information.
* code                        Indicating program code.
* kbd                         Showing keyboard input.
* key                         Specifying keys.
* samp                        A literal sequence of characters.
* verb                        A verbatim sequence of characters.
* var                         Indicating metasyntactic variables.
* env                         Indicating environment variables.
* file                        Indicating file names.
* command                     Indicating command names.
* option                      Indicating option names.
* dfn                         Specifying definitions.
* cite                        Referring to books not in the  Info system.
* abbr                        Indicating abbreviations.
* acronym                     Indicating acronyms.
* indicateurl                 Indicating a World Wide Web reference.
* email                       Indicating an electronic mail address.
 Emphasizing Text
* emph & strong               How to emphasize text in Texinfo.
* Smallcaps                   How to use the small caps font.
* Fonts                       Various font commands for printed output.
 Quotations and Examples
* Block Enclosing Commands    Different constructs for different purposes.
* quotation                   Writing a quotation.
* example                     Writing an example in a fixed-width font.
* verbatim                    Writing a verbatim example.
* verbatiminclude             Including a file verbatim.
* lisp                        Illustrating Lisp code.
* small                       Examples in a smaller font.
* display                     Writing an example in the current font.
* format                      Writing an example without narrowed margins.
* exdent                      Undo indentation on a line.
* flushleft & flushright      Pushing text flush left or flush right.
* noindent                    Preventing paragraph indentation.
* indent                      Forcing paragraph indentation.
* cartouche                   Drawing rounded rectangles around examples.
 Lists and Tables
* Introducing Lists           Texinfo formats lists for you.
* itemize                     How to construct a simple list.
* enumerate                   How to construct a numbered list.
* Two-column Tables           How to construct a two-column table.
* Multi-column Tables         How to construct generalized tables.
 Making a Two-column Table
* table                       How to construct a two-column table.
* ftable vtable               Automatic indexing for two-column tables.
* itemx                       How to put more entries in the first column.
 `@multitable': Multi-column Tables
* Multitable Column Widths    Defining multitable column widths.
* Multitable Rows             Defining multitable rows, with examples.
 Special Displays
* Floats                      Figures, tables, and the like.
* Images                      Including graphics and images.
* Footnotes                   Writing footnotes.
* float                       Producing floating material.
* caption shortcaption        Specifying descriptions for floats.
* listoffloats                A table of contents for floats.
 Inserting Images
* Image Syntax
* Image Scaling
* Footnote Commands           How to write a footnote in Texinfo.
* Footnote Styles             Controlling how footnotes appear in Info.
* Index Entries               Choose different words for index entries.
* Predefined Indices          Use different indices for different kinds
                                  of entries.
* Indexing Commands           How to make an index entry.
* Combining Indices           How to combine indices.
* New Indices                 How to define your own indices.
 Combining Indices
* syncodeindex                How to merge two indices, using `@code'
                                  font for the merged-from index.
* synindex                    How to merge two indices, using the
                                  default font of the merged-to index.
 Special Insertions
* Atsign Braces Comma         Inserting @ and {} and ,.
* Inserting Space             How to insert the right amount of space
                                  within a sentence.
* Inserting Accents           How to insert accents and special characters.
* Dots Bullets                How to insert dots and bullets.
* TeX and copyright           How to insert the TeX logo
                                  and the copyright symbol.
* euro                        How to insert the Euro currency symbol.
* pounds                      How to insert the pounds currency symbol.
* minus                       How to insert a minus sign.
* math                        How to format a mathematical expression.
* Glyphs                      How to indicate results of evaluation,
                                  expansion of macros, errors, etc.
 Inserting @ and {} and ,
* Inserting an Atsign
* Inserting Braces
* Inserting a Comma
 Inserting Space
* Not Ending a Sentence       Sometimes a . doesn't end a sentence.
* Ending a Sentence           Sometimes it does.
* Multiple Spaces             Inserting multiple spaces.
* dmn                         How to format a dimension.
 Inserting Ellipsis and Bullets
* dots                        How to insert dots ...
* bullet                      How to insert a bullet.
 Inserting TeX and Legal Symbols: (C), (R)
* tex                         The TeX logos.
* copyright symbol            The copyright symbol (c in a circle).
* registered symbol           The registered symbol (R in a circle).
 Glyphs for Examples
* Glyphs Summary
* result                      How to show the result of expression.
* expansion                   How to indicate an expansion.
* Print Glyph                 How to indicate printed output.
* Error Glyph                 How to indicate an error message.
* Equivalence                 How to indicate equivalence.
* Point Glyph                 How to indicate the location of point.
 Glyphs Summary
* result
* expansion
* Print Glyph
* Error Glyph
* Equivalence
* Point Glyph
 Forcing and Preventing Breaks
* Break Commands              Summary of break-related commands.
* Line Breaks                 Forcing line breaks.
* - and hyphenation           Helping TeX with hyphenation points.
* w                           Preventing unwanted line breaks in text.
* tie                         Inserting an unbreakable but varying space.
* sp                          Inserting blank lines.
* page                        Forcing the start of a new page.
* group                       Preventing unwanted page breaks.
* need                        Another way to prevent unwanted page breaks.
 Definition Commands
* Def Cmd Template            Writing descriptions using definition commands.
* Def Cmd Continuation Lines  Continuing the heading over source lines.
* Optional Arguments          Handling optional and repeated arguments.
* deffnx                      Group two or more `first' lines.
* Def Cmds in Detail          Reference for all the definition commands.
* Def Cmd Conventions         Conventions for writing definitions.
* Sample Function Definition  An example.
 The Definition Commands
* Functions Commands          Commands for functions and similar entities.
* Variables Commands          Commands for variables and similar entities.
* Typed Functions             Commands for functions in typed languages.
* Typed Variables             Commands for variables in typed languages.
* Data Types                  The definition command for data types.
* Abstract Objects            Commands for object-oriented programming.
 Object-Oriented Programming
* Variables Object-Oriented Variables.
* Methods Object-Oriented Methods.
 Conditionally Visible Text
* Conditional Commands        Text for a given format.
* Conditional Not Commands    Text for any format other than a given one.
* Raw Formatter Commands      Using raw formatter commands.
* set clear value             Variable tests and substitutions.
* Conditional Nesting         Using conditionals inside conditionals.
 `@set', `@clear', and `@value'
* set value                   Expand a flag variable to a string.
* ifset ifclear               Format a region if a flag is set.
* value Example               An easy way to update edition information.
* documentlanguage            Declaring the current language.
* documentencoding            Declaring the input encoding.
 Defining New Texinfo Commands
* Defining Macros             Defining and undefining new commands.
* Invoking Macros             Using a macro, once you've defined it.
* Macro Details               Limitations of Texinfo macros.
* alias                       Command aliases.
* definfoenclose              Customized highlighting.
 Formatting and Printing Hardcopy
* Use TeX                     Use TeX to format for hardcopy.
* Format with tex/texindex    How to format with explicit shell commands.
* Format with texi2dvi        A simpler way to format.
* Print with lpr              How to print.
* Within Emacs                How to format and print from an Emacs shell.
* Texinfo Mode Printing       How to format and print in Texinfo mode.
* Compile-Command             How to print using Emacs's compile command.
* Requirements Summary        TeX formatting requirements summary.
* Preparing for TeX           What to do before you use TeX.
* Overfull hboxes             What are and what to do with overfull hboxes.
* smallbook                   How to print small format books and manuals.
* A4 Paper                    How to print on A4 or A5 paper.
* pagesizes                   How to print with customized page sizes.
* Cropmarks and Magnification How to print marks to indicate the size
                                  of pages and how to print scaled up output.
* PDF Output                  Portable Document Format output.
* Obtaining TeX               How to Obtain TeX.
 Creating and Installing Info Files
* Creating an Info File
* Installing an Info File
 Creating an Info File
* makeinfo advantages         `makeinfo' provides better error checking.
* Invoking makeinfo           How to run `makeinfo' from a shell.
* makeinfo options            Specify fill-column and other options.
* Pointer Validation          How to check that pointers point somewhere.
* makeinfo in Emacs           How to run `makeinfo' from Emacs.
* texinfo-format commands     Two Info formatting commands written
                                  in Emacs Lisp are an alternative
                                  to `makeinfo'.
* Batch Formatting            How to format for Info in Emacs Batch mode.
* Tag and Split Files         How tagged and split files help Info
                                  to run better.
 Installing an Info File
* Directory File              The top level menu for all Info files.
* New Info File               Listing a new Info file.
* Other Info Directories      How to specify Info files that are
                                  located in other directories.
* Installing Dir Entries      How to specify what menu entry to add
                                  to the Info directory.
* Invoking install-info       `install-info' options.
 Generating HTML
* HTML Translation       Details of the HTML output.
* HTML Splitting         How HTML output is split.
* HTML CSS               Influencing HTML output with Cascading Style Sheets.
* HTML Xref              Cross-references in HTML output.
 HTML Cross-references
* Link Basics       HTML Xref Link Basics.
* Node Expansion    HTML Xref Node Name Expansion.
* Command Expansion HTML Xref Command Expansion.
* 8-bit Expansion   HTML Xref 8-bit Character Expansion.
* Mismatch          HTML Xref Mismatch.
 @-Command List
* Command Syntax    General syntax for varieties of @-commands.
 Sample Texinfo Files
* Short Sample Texinfo File
* GNU Sample Texts
* Verbatim Copying License
* All-permissive Copying License
 Copying This Manual
* GNU Free Documentation License  License for copying this manual.
 Include Files
* Using Include Files         How to use the `@include' command.
* texinfo-multiple-files-update  How to create and update nodes and
                                      menus when using included files.
* Include Files Requirements  `texinfo-multiple-files-update' needs.
* Sample Include File         A sample outer file with included files
                                      within it; and a sample included file.
* Include Files Evolution     How use of the `@include' command
                                      has changed over time.
 Page Headings
* Headings Introduced         Conventions for using page headings.
* Heading Format              Standard page heading formats.
* Heading Choice              How to specify the type of page heading.
* Custom Headings             How to create your own headings and footings.
 Formatting Mistakes
* makeinfo Preferred          `makeinfo' finds errors.
* Debugging with Info         How to catch errors with Info formatting.
* Debugging with TeX          How to catch errors with TeX formatting.
* Using texinfo-show-structure  How to use `texinfo-show-structure'.
* Using occur                 How to list all lines containing a pattern.
* Running Info-Validate       How to find badly referenced nodes.
 Finding Badly Referenced Nodes
* Using Info-validate         How to run `Info-validate'.
* Unsplit                     How to create an unsplit file.
* Tagifying                   How to tagify a file.
* Splitting                   How to split a file manually.
 Copying This Manual
* GNU Free Documentation License  License for copying this manual.
      Documentation is like sex: when it is good, it is very, very good;
      and when it is bad, it is better than nothing.  --Dick Brandon
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