C++ translator (``cfront'')
CC [ options ] file ...
CC is the C++ compiler. The command uses
an internal ANSI C preprocessor
cfront for syntax and type checking, and
for code generation and linking.
takes arguments ending in ``.C'' or ``.i''
to be C++ source files. ``.i''
files are presumed to be the output of
Both ``.c'' and ``.o''
files are also accepted by the
CC command and passed to
In addition to the options described below, CC
accepts other options and passes them on to the C compilation system tools.
for C compiler options,
for link editor options, and
for assembler options.
The following options apply to the C++-specific parts of the
Escape option to pass options to the C compiler.
CC -ec xxx -ec yyy ...
will pass ``xxx yyy'' to the C compiler.
Escape option to pass options to the linker.
Unmangle struct member and local variable names except where
Dump out structs in C output even if not used. This feature
is no longer automatically enabled by -g.
-gdump imposes a performance penalty.
Decrease inline cutoff (less inlining will be done). This
will in general decrease program speed but make the program smaller.
Inlining of very small inline functions will continue to be done.
Increase inline cutoff (more inlining will be done). This
will in general increase program speed at the expense of increased
on the C++ source files and send the result to standard output.
and cfront on the C++ source
files, and send the result to standard output.
The output contains
When used in combination with -E or -F,
place the output from each input file in a file with the specified suffix
in the current directory.
-g, -dbx, -dbxC
Generate additional information for the use of
(sdb may be used with some difficulty)
for source-level debugging.
Some code optimizations are not performed.
The use of
causes an extra file to be produced allowing enhanced C++ debugging;
this file passes information about classes and other C++ constructs
option allows enhanced debugging and examination of both the C++
and generated C source using
Use of these options also passes
to the C compiler.
options do not disable inlining. If you wish to debug inlined functions,
you must explicitly turn inlining off using the
The C++ compiler can generate either ANSI C-conforming or K&R C-style declarations.
The +a option specifies which style of declarations to produce.
The default, +a0, causes the compiler to produce K&R C-style declarations.
The +a1 option causes the compiler to produce ANSI C-conforming declarations.
Do not inline-expand functions declared inline.
Only to be used on classes for which virtual functions
are present, and all the virtual functions are defined either
as inline or pure. In this circumstance, this
option optimizes a program to use less space by ensuring
that only one virtual table per class is generated.
+e1 causes virtual tables to be external and
defined. +e0 causes virtual tables to be external but
only declared. This option is ignored for any class
that contains an out-of-line virtual function.
Leave the intermediate ``..c'' files in the current directory
during the compilation process.
These files do not contain any preprocessing directives,
although the files passed to the C compiler do. When templates are
it causes the instantiation system to leave ``..c'' files in the
Disallow all anachronistic constructs.
Ordinarily the translator warns about anachronistic constructs;
under +p (for ``pure''), the translator will not compile
code containing anachronistic constructs.
See the C++ Product Reference Manual
for a list of anachronisms.
Warn about constructs that are likely to be mistakes,
be nonportable, or be inefficient.
Without the +w option,
the compiler issues warnings only about
constructs that are almost certainly errors.
Read a file of size and alignments created by compiling and
The form of the created file is identical to the entries in
This option is useful for cross compilations and for porting the translator.
See the Development System Release and Installation Notes for
Informs the C++ compiler that files ending with the specified suffix
are C++ files.
The template instantiation system adds several options to
These are specified on the CC line or by setting the
environment variable PTOPTS.
For example, to permanently enable verbose mode, you would say:
export PTOPTS=-ptv (for Bourne shell)
setenv PTOPTS -ptv (for C shell)
Instantiate a whole template class rather than
only those members that are needed.
Dump list of instantiation objects to a file if any
were recompiled or the file does not exist.
Also bypasses actual link step.
Can be used with -pti in
makefiles of the form:
appl: appl.o ilist
CC -pti -o appl `cat ilist` appl.o
appl.o: appl.c Vector.h A.h C.h
CC -c appl.c
CC -ptdilist appl.o
Force repository names to be less than 14 characters even if the OS
supports long names. This is useful in building archive libraries.
Ignore ptlink pass.
Force ptlink to continue trying to instantiate even after
instantiation errors on previous template classes.
Have ptlink dump out a ``link map'' showing what actions
the link simulator took.
Change the default instantiation
behavior for one-file programs to that of larger programs,
where instantiation is broken out separately and the repository updated.
One-file programs normally have instantiation optimized so that
instantiation is done into the application object itself.
Specify a repository,
with ./ptrepository the default.
If several repositories are given, only the first is writeable, and
the default repository is ignored unless explicitly named.
Split instantiations into separate object
files, with one function per object (including overloaded functions),
and all class static data and
virtual functions grouped into a single object.
Turn on verbose or verify mode, which displays each
phase of instantiation as it occurs, together with the elapsed time in
seconds that phase took to complete.
Use of this option is recommended if you are new to templates.
With verbose mode, the reason why an instantiation is done and the
exact CC command used are displayed.
In release 3.1, -pts and -pta cannot be used together,
that is, -pts can be used only to split up needed
functions rather than all functions.
The preprocessor directives -I and -D work as they
normally do, but must also be specified at link time, to pick up the
various template and application type header files.
The diagnostics produced by CC itself are intended to be
Occasional messages may be produced by the C compiler or link editor.
The following are some of the user-settable environment variables:
C compiler (default: cc)
cfront (default: CCROOTDIR/cfront)
ANSI C preprocessor (default: CCROOTDIR/cpp)
C++ source file
optional cfront output
C++ source after preprocessing
assembly language file
dbXtra debug information
standard C library
C++ driver shell script
ANSI C preprocessor
CCROOTDIR/patch or munch
name demangler for diagnostic messages
CCROOTDIR/ptcomp and ptlink
enable template instantiation
dbXtra debug processor
C++ standard library
C++ coroutine library
C++ complex arithmetic library
colon-separated list of standard
The usual locations for the standard directories are as follows:
C++ Primer, Second Edition
B. W. Kernighan and D. M. Ritchie.
The C Programming Language,
The C++ Programming Language, Second Edition
CC is not part of any currently supported standard; it is an
extension of AT&T System V provided by The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc.
© 2003 Commands for Programming (CP)
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