DOC HOME SITE MAP MAN PAGES GNU INFO SEARCH PRINT BOOK
ANSI implementation-defined behavior

# Integers

This section describes the implementation-defined characteristics of integers. It corresponds to section ``F.3.5 Integers'' in the ANSI document.

## Integer range and representation

Integers are represented as follows:

```   char == signed char
unsigned char

short == signed short
unsigned short

int == signed int == long ==  signed long
unsigned int == unsigned long

```

NOTE: The section ``C Implementation Limits description'', later in this appendix, presents the range of values each integer type can take on.

## Demotion of integers

When an integer is converted to a shorter signed integer, if the value cannot be represented, the excess bytes are truncated. For example if:

```   char c = (char) 0xabcdef;
```
then the value of c is 0xef.

When an unsigned integer is converted to a signed integer of equal length, if the value cannot be represented, the conversion is the same, but the value is treated like a signed number.

## Signed bitwise operations

In bitwise operations on signed integers, each of the operands of a bitwise operation is subject to the ``usual arithmetic conversions''. Consequently, narrow integers are subject to ``integral promotions''. For example, a short is promoted into an int. If the value of the short is negative, the sign is extended in the int. After the promotion, bitwise operations on signed ints are applied as if they were applied on unsigned ints.

## Sign of division remainder

When integers are divided and the division is inexact, the sign of the remainder is the same as the sign of the dividend.

## Right shift of negative-valued signed integer

When a signed integral type with a negative value is right shifted, the sign is extended.

Next topic: Floating point
Previous topic: Characters